Larisse Longo, Leila Xavier Sinigaglia-Fratta, Giovana R. Weber, Andrea Janz-Moreira, Nélson A. Kretzmann, Tomaz de J.M. Grezzana-Filho, Norma Possa-Marroni, Carlos O. Corso, Carlos T. Schmidt-Cerski, Themis Reverbel-da-Silveira, Mário R. Álvares-da-Silva, Jorge L. dos-Santos
Background. Topical hypothermia (TH) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) are used to decrease I/R injury. The efficacy of isolated or combined use of TH and IPC in the liver regarding inflammation and cytoprotection in early ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury needs to be evaluated. Material and methods. Wistar rats underwent 70% liver ischemia for 90 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Livers of animals allocated in the sham, normothermic ischemia (NI), IPC, TH, and TH+IPC groups were collected for molecular analyses by ELISA and Western blot, aiming to compare proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant profiles. Results. Compared with NI, TH presented decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 concentrations and increased IL-10 levels. TH animals displayed lower inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions. NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase-1(NQO1) expression was also lower with TH. Isolated IPC and NI were similar regarding all these markers. TH+IPC was associated with decreased IL-12 concentration and reduced iNOS and NQO1 expressions, similarly to isolated TH. Expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap)-1 was increased and expression of nuclear and cytosolic nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was decreased with TH+IPC vs. NI. Conclusion. TH was the most effective method of protection against early I/R injury. Isolated IPC entailed triggering of second-line antioxidant defense enzymes. Combined TH+IPC seemed to confer no additional advantage over isolated TH in relation to the inflammatory process, but had the advantage of completely avoid second-line antioxidant defense enzymes.
Key words. Antioxidant, Inflammation, Liver, Pathophysiology