Jonathan Arauz, Erika Ramos-Tovar, Pablo Muriel
Oxidative stress is importantly involved in the pathophysiology of various liver diseases. The redox state participates on the course of the inflammatory, metabolic and proliferative liver diseases. The main sources of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) are represented by the mitochondria and cytochrome P450 enzymes in the hepatocyte, Kupffer cells and neutrophils. Cells are provided with efficient molecular strategies to strictly control the intracellular ROS level and to maintain the balance between oxidant and antioxidant molecules. Hepatocytes proteins, lipids and DNA are among the cellular structures to be affected primarily by ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). This process disrupts at cellular and molecular level the structure-function relationship on liver cells at different sites. Therefore, further studies on the molecular mechanisms of the oxidative stress pathways on liver diseases are urgently required, because they could explain the pathogenesis of various liver disorders. Moreover, new methods to evaluate oxidative stress like the oxidative markers among hepatocytes offers the potential to diagnose the degree of liver injury and ultimately to assess the response to pharmacological therapies. In this review, we discuss the molecular, metabolic and aging aspects of the oxidative stress, and the methods to evaluate oxidative stress on liver damage.
Key words. ROS, Liver injury, Inflammation, Lipid peroxidation, Glutathione