Behairy E. Behairy, Hanaa A. El-Araby, Hasan H. Abd El kader, Nermin A. Ehsan, Menan E. Salem, Haidy M. Zakaria, Mohammed A. Khedr
Background. T-cell populations regulate the balance of immune responses. The CD (Cluster of differentiation) 4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for maintaining negative control of various immune responses. There are different T-cell subpopulations with regulatory functions, as natural killer T cells, CD8+ and CD28. The forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) regulates Treg development and is required for its suppressive function. Aim. To evaluate the hepatic expression of the intrahepatic Tregs, Ig (immunoglobulin) G and IgM plasma cells in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and other chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Material and methods. This study included 100 pediatric patients; 50 AIH and 50 CLDs other than AIH. All patients were subjected to routine investigations of CLDs plus immune-staining of liver tissue for FOXp3, IgG and IgM plasma cells, CD4 and CD8 T-cells. Results. The FOXP3+ T cells in patients with AIH (6.3 ± 5) were significantly higher than that in the non-AIH (2.1 ± 2.6). FOXP3+ T cells were abundant in liver tissue with marked inflammatory cellular infiltrate. CD4+ and CD8+ infiltrating the liver tissue and IgG positive cells were significantly higher in AIH group, while the expression of IgM positive cells showed no significant difference. The IgG/IgM was significantly higher in the AIH treatment responders (3 ± 3) than non-responders (1.6 ± 0.5), while there was no significant difference regarding the intrahepatic expression of FOXP3+, CD4+, CD8+ cells, T-cells, IgG and IgM plasma cells. Conclusion. Intrahepatic Tregs were increased in number in patients with AIH in the initial presentation, and their presence is associated with increased activity and inflammation in liver biopsy.
Key words. Cluster of differentiation, Chronic liver diseases, Forkhead box P3, Immunoglobulin