Paulina Chinchilla-López, Nancy E. Aguilar-Olivos, Jaime García-Gómez, Karen K. Hernández-Alejandro, Fredy Chablé-Montero, Daniel Motola-Kuba, Tushar Patel, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Purpose. To investigate the prevalence, related risk factors, and survival of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a Mexican population. Material and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at Medica Sur Hospital in Mexico City with approval of the local research ethics committee. We found cases by reviewing all clinical records of in-patients between October 2005 and January 2016 who had been diagnosed with malignant liver tumors. Clinical characteristics and comorbidities were obtained to evaluate the probable risk factors and the Charlson index. The cases were staged based on the TNM staging system for bile duct tumors used by the American Joint Committee on Cancer and median patient survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. We reviewed 233 cases of hepatic cancer. Amongst these, hepatocellular carcinomas represented 19.3% (n = 45), followed by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, which accounted for 7.7% (n = 18). The median age of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 63 years, and most of them presented with cholestasis and intrahepatic biliary ductal dilation. Unfortunately, 89% (n = 16) of them were in an advanced stage and 80% had multicentric tumors. Median survival was 286 days among patients with advanced stage tumors (25th-75th interquartile range, 174-645 days). No correlation was found between the presence of comorbidities defined by the Charlson index, and survival. We evaluated the presence of definite and probable risk factors for the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, that is, smoking, alcohol consumption, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Discussion. We found an overall prevalence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma of 7.7%; unfortunately, these patients were diagnosed at advanced stages. Smoking and primary sclerosing cholangitis were the positive risk factors for its development in this population.
Key words. Biliary tract cancer., Hepatic cancer., Mexico., Prevalence., Survival.