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Risk and Prognosis of Acute Liver Injury Among Hospitalized Patients with Hemodynamic Instability: A Nationwide Analysis

Najeff Waseem, Berkeley N. Limketkai, Brian Kim, Tinsay Woreta, Ahmet Gurakar, Po-Hung Chen

Abstract

Introduction and aim. Critically ill patients in states of circulatory failure are at risk of acute liver injury, from mild elevations in aminotransferases to substantial rises consistent with hypoxic hepatitis or ?shock liver?. The present study aims to quantify the national prevalence of acute liver injury in patients with hemodynamic instability, identify risk factors for its development, and determine predictors of mortality. Material and methods. The 2009-2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was interrogated using ICD-9-CM codes for hospital admissions involving states of hemodynamic lability. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the risks of acute liver injury and death in patients with baseline liver disease, congestive heart failure, malnutrition, and HIV. Results. Of the 2,865,446 patients identified in shock, 4.60% were found to have acute liver injury. A significantly greater proportion of patients with underlying liver disease experienced acute liver injury (22.03%) and death (28.47%) as compared to those without liver disease (3.18% and 18.82%, respectively). The odds of developing acute liver injury were increased in all baseline liver diseases studied, including all-cause cirrhosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as in congestive heart failure and malnutrition. All-cause cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease, however, conferred the greatest risk. Similar trends were seen with mortality. HIV was not a predictor for acute liver injury. Conclusion. Liver injury is a major concern among patients with protracted circulatory instability, especially those suffering from underlying liver disease, heart failure, or malnutrition.

Key words. Acute liver injury., Mortality., Prevalence., Risk factors.

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The Official Journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology, the Latin-American Association for the Study of the Liver and the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver

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