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Low Fibrinogen Levels are Associated with Bleeding After Varices Ligation in Thrombocytopenic Cirrhotic Patients

Edoardo G. Giannini, Elisa Giambruno, Mattteo Brunacci, Maria Corina Plaz Torres, Manuele Furnari, Giorgia Bodini, Patrizia Zentilin, Vincenzo Savarino

Abstract

Introduction and Aim. EVBL is a procedure frequently performed in cirrhotic patients for primary prophylaxis of bleeding. Patients with cirrhosis display various degrees of alteration of common coagulation parameters, and it is not known whether these alterations may predict post-EVBL bleeding. To evaluate factors predictive of post-endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVBL) bleeding in cirrhotic patients with thrombocytopenia. Material and methods. We included 109 patients with cirrhosis undergoing EVBL for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. Common coagulation parameters (INR, fibrinogen levels) and complete haemogram were obtained in all patients and evaluated subdividing patients in bleeders and non bleeders following EVBL. Results. The incidence of post-EVBL bleeding was 5.5% (6 patients). INR and platelet counts, considered as continuous or dichotomous variables according to common cut-offs (i.e., INR > 1.5, platelet count < 50 x 109/L) were not predictors of post-EVBL bleeding. Patients who bled had significantly lower fibrinogen levels [146 mg/dL (98 - 262) vs. 230 mg/dL (104 - 638), P = 0.009], and no other biochemical or clinical predictors of bleeding were identified. A fibrinogen cut-off of 179 mg/dL had 98.6% negative predictive value for bleeding. Conclusion. Low fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk of bleeding following prophylactic EVBL in cirrhotic patients, and might be used to stratify patients' risk. However, due to their preliminary nature, these findings need to be confirmed in larger populations.

Key words. Platelets, Thrombocytopenia, Oesophageal varices, Portal hypertension, Chronic liver disease

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The Official Journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology, the Latin-American Association for the Study of the Liver and the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver

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