Plácido Espíritu-Ramírez, Nancy Y. Ortega-Balderas, Laura Sevilla-Tapia, Ana G. Montiel-Martínez, Ana R. Pastor-Flores, Laura A. Palomares, Miguel A. Torres-Vega
Introduction and aim. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), caused by hyperammonemia resulting from liver disease, is a spectrum of neuropsychiatric and motor disorders that can lead to death. Existing therapies are deficient and alternative treatments are needed. We have shown that gene therapy with a baculovirus vector containing the glutamine synthetase (Bac-GS) gene is efficient for reducing ammonia levels in an acute hyperammonemia rat model. However, the most common condition resulting from liver disease is chronic hyperammonemia. In this work, Bac-GS was evaluated in bile-duct ligated rats, a chronic liver disease model with hyperammonemia and some characteristics of Type C HE. Material and methods. Bac-GS was tested for mediating GS overexpression in HeLa cells and H9C2 myotubes. For determining the utility of Bac-GS for the reduction of ammonia levels in a chronic hyperammonemia animal model, four groups of rats were treated: control, sham, ligated with Bac-GS and ligated with Bac-GFP. Baculoviruses were injected i.m. 18 days post-surgery. Blood was drawn 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-surgery and plasma ammonia concentrations were quantified. Results. In protein lysates of cells and myotubes transduced with Bac-GS, a 44 kDa band corresponding to GS was detected. Significant results were obtained in the hyperammonemic bile-duct ligated rat model, as plasma ammonia was reduced to normal levels 3 days after treatment with Bac-GS. Furthermore, a transitory effect of Bac-GS was observed. Conclusion. Our results show that gene therapy by delivering GS is a promising alternative for treatment of hyperammonemia in acute-on-chronic liver failure patients with HE.
Key words. Baculovirus, Glutamine synthetase, Gene delivery, Bile-duct ligation, Liver failure