David N. Perdigoto, Pedro Figueiredo, Luis Tome
Introduction and aim. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is defined by the development of acute deterioration of liver function associated with failure of other organs and high short-term mortality in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). There is no consensus on the diagnostic criteria, and its independence from ordinary decompensation of CLD has frequently been questioned. This study aimed to identify and characterize this condition and to test the CLIF-C OF score comparing it to the 2016-MELD (with sodium) and the Child-Pugh. Material and methods. 18-month prospective observational study with systematic inclusion of admitted patients with CLD decompensation. Results. 39 patients had ACLF (33.1%). These patients experienced higher 28-day and 90-day mortality, when compared to patients without ACLF (43.6% and 64.1% vs. 2.5% and 7.6% respectively, p < 0.0001). ACLF was linked with a higher acute infection rate (74.4%). For all patients (N = 118), the scores 2016-MELD, CLIF-C OF and Child-Pugh showed an area under the curve (AUC) for 28-day mortality of 0.908, 0.844, 0.753 and for 90-day of 0.902, 0.814, 0.724 respectively, p < 0.0001 for all scores. The 90-day mortality 2016-MELD AUC was greater than the CLIF-C OF AUC, p = 0.021. Within ACLF patients, the 2016-MELD, CLIF-C ACLF and Child-Pugh scores showed an AUC of 0.774, 0.734, 0.584 (28-day) and 0.880, 0.771, 0.603 (90-day); for 2016-MELD p = 0.004 (28-day) and p < 0.0001 (90-day). Conclusion. ACLF is a frequent and relevant condition, associated with high mortality. The CLIF-C OF score revealed good accuracy and diagnoses ACLF when it is present. However, the 2016-MELD performed better for 90-day mortality prediction.
Key words. CLIF-C ACLF, CLIF-C AD, Child-Pugh, MELD-Na, Prognostic scores