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What is the reason of elevated alanine aminotransferase level in HBeAg negative patients with low viremia: NAFLD or chronic hepatitis?

Kadir Demir, Filiz Akyuz, Sadakat Ozdil, Nevzat Aksoy, Kaymakoglu Kaymakoglu, Sule Poturoglu, Ümit Akyüz, Fatih Besisik, Gungor Boztas, Zeynel Mungan, Ugur Cevikbas, Yýlmaz Cakaloglu, Atilla Okten

Abstract

Background and study aims: Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels with negative hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA by hybridization is a common problem in Turkey where is a mild endemic region. We aimed to evaluate the causes of elevated ALT levels in patients who are negative for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA (by hybridization) for at least 6 months. Patients-methods: Forty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Histological changes [histological activity index (HAI), and the extent of fibrosis] were assessed according to the Knodell scoring system and steatosis were graded by Brunt's classification for NAFLD in all patients. Results: A mean age of the patients was 34.9 ± 12.1 years (16-70). 43 (87.8%) of them were male. Mean ALT level was 95 ± 39.7 IU/L (50- 258). Hyperglycemia (>100 mg/dL) and hyperlipidemia were found in 12 and 24 patients, respectively. Hepatic steatosis (7 patients grade 1; 5 patients grade 2; and 7 patients grade 3), ground-glass hepatocyte, chronic hepatitis, and Wilson disease were found in liver biopsy in 38.8%, 32.6%, 26.6%, 2%, respectively. Mean HAI was 6.5 ± 3.6 (4-12) in chronic hepatitis. Seven patients (53.9%) were in stage 1 and 2 while 6 patients (46.1%) were in stage 3 and 4. Conclusions: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of elevated ALT levels in HBeAg negative/HBV DNA negative patients. Chronic hepatitis B was found in 26.6% of these patients.

Key words. HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B, steatosis

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The Official Journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology, the Latin-American Association for the Study of the Liver and the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver

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