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Extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis

D.N. Amarapurkar, A.D. Amarapurkar

Abstract

Viral hepatitis has been shown to be associated with various extrahepatic manifestations. These can be seen in both acute and chronic liver disease, may precede or follow overt liver disease. Aims and objects: To study the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis and follow the course of the disease in response to antiviral therapy whenever indicated. Methods: Prospectively 448 patients of viral hepatitis were evaluated for extrahepatic manifestations and patients of glomerulonephritis (GN), polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and cryoglobulinemia were tested for viral markers. All patients were investigated for liver and kidney function tests, hematological workup and viral markers such as HBsAg, HBeAg, Anti HBeAg, HCV RNA, IgM anti HAV and IgM anti HEV. Serum electrophoresis and kidney biopsies were done whenever indicated. In 10 cases of hepatitis B glomerulonephritis immunohistochemistry was done on kidney biopsies for demonstration of hepatitis B surface and core antigen. Results: Of total 448 cases 181 (40.4%) had hepatitis B infection, 142 (31.6%) had hepatitis C infection, 86 (19.1%) hepatitis E and 39 (8.7%) had hepatitis A infection. Extrahepatic manifestations were seen in 29 (6.4%) cases and these were cases of GN, PAN, cryoglobulinemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia and pancreatitis. Patients with hepatitis A with extrahepatic manifestations showed complete recovery in both hepatitis and extrahepatic manifestations. Six patients with PAN were treated with interferon of which 4 showed excellent response. Three patients of hepatitis B and hepatitis C related GN were given interferon and 4/6 responded well to treatment. Conclusion: Prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations with viral hepatitis was found to be 6.4%. These manifestations recover completely with recovery from viral hepatitis.

Key words. Viral hepatitis, glomerulonephritis, polyarteritis, cryoglobulinemia

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The Official Journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology, the Latin-American Association for the Study of the Liver and the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver

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