Stergios A. Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Athanasios Papatheodorou, Evangelia Katsiki, Kalliopi Patsiaoura, Efthimia Zafeiriadou, Christos Zavos, Evridiki Papadopoulou, Evangelos Terpos
Background and rationale. Insulin resistance (IR), adipocytokines, oxidative stress and hepatic apoptosis play a pathogenetic role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aims. The evaluation of specific adipocytokines and markers of IR, oxidative stress and apoptosis in NAFLD patients; the introduction of a combined non-invasive index for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Material and methods. Thirty patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (15 with simple nonalcoholic fatty liver [NAFL], 15 with NASH) and 24 controls were recruited. Blood samples for total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, visfatin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the apoptotic by-product cytokeratin (CK)-18, the reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) and standard biochemical tests were measured. Homeostatic model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Main results: Total and HMW adiponectin were significantly lower and TNF-α higher in either NAFL or NASH group compared to control group; CK-18 was significantly higher in NASH compared to either NAFL or control group. CHAI (an acronym of CK-18, HOMA-IR, AST Index) was calculated as the product of parameters being significantly different between NAFL and NASH groups. CHAI was significantly higher in NASH (24.2 [15.1-214.0]) compared to either NAFL (15.7 [6.8-22.7]) or control (5.1 [2.4-7.6]) group (p < 0.001) and significantly higher as the severity of steatosis, fibrosis, ballooning, lobular and portal inflammation advanced. Conclusion. CHAI was escalating from controls to NAFL and NASH and was higher by increasing the severity of all the main histological lesions. However, a validation study is needed before introducing CHAI in clinical practice.
Key words. Adiponectin, Insulin resistance, Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, Tumor necrosis factor, Visfatin