Vicente Sánchez-Valle, Mahara Valverde, Leticia Carrizales, Jesus Mejía, Nahum Zepeta, Emilio Rojas
Introduction. Metals are ubiquitous soil, air, and water pollutants. A mixture of arsenic cadmium and lead, in particular, has commonly been found in the vicinity of smelter areas. The mixture of As-Cd-Pb has been shown to be carcinogenic, and transforming potential and oxidative stress have been proposed as principal mechanisms involved in this process. The aim of this work was to explore the role of the antioxidant barrier in the establishment of cell transformation upon chronic exposure to a metal mixture containing 2 µM NaAsO 2 , 2 µM. CdCl 2 , and 5 µM Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ·3H O in WRL-68 cells-a non-transformed human hepatic cell line. Material and methods. In this study, we used a WRL-68 cell model of human embryonic hepatic origin treated with antioxidant inhibitors (L-Buthionine-sulfoxamine and aminotriazole) to test the role of the antioxidant barrier in the establishment of cell transformation upon chronic exposure to a metal mixture of As-Cd-Pb (2 µM NaAsO 2 , 2 µM CdCl2 and 5 µM Pb(C 2 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ·3H O). We evaluated oxidative damage markers, including reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxicity, as well as antioxidant response markers, including glutathione concentration, catalase activity, and superoxide dismutase activity, wich promote morphological transformation, which can be quantified by foci formation. Results. As expected, we found an increase in the intracellular concentration of the metals after treatment with the metal mixture. In addition, treatment with the metal mixture in addition to inhibitors resulted in a large increase in the intracellular concentration of cadmium and lead. Our results describe the generation of reactive oxygen species, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative damage to macromolecules that occurred exclusively in cells that were morphologically transformed upon exposure to a metal mixture and antioxidant barrier inhibition. Conclusion. Our results show the importance of the antioxidant barrier role in the protection of cellular integrity and the transformation potential of this metal mixture via free radicals.
Key words. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Morphological transformation, Aminotriazole, BSO, Antioxidant barrier, WRL68