Nitin K. Ahuja, Winston A. Ally, Stephen H. Caldwell
A limited number of medications are typically considered for the management of hepatic encephalopathy occurring as a complication of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. Multiple alternative compounds aimed at disrupting ammoniagenesis are or will soon be available, though their use tends to be limited by a lack of large data sets and of clinical awareness. In this review, we provide a targeted overview of the mechanisms and availability of five anti-ammoniagenic compounds (sodium phenylbutyrate, glycerol phenylbutyrate, sodium benzoate, L-ornithine L-aspartate, and ornithine phenylacetate) identified as possibly useful alternative therapeutic agents for cirrhotic encephalopathy. Three of these medications have been FDA approved for use in congenital urea cycle disorders only, while two are under active investigation for use in cirrhotic patients. In spite of limitations posed by cost and comorbidities, familiarity with these options may prove beneficial in cases refractory to conventional management.
Key words. Encephalopathy, TIPS, Ammonia, Urea metabolism, Phenylbutyrate, Phenylacetate, Benzoate